The Economics of Cryptocurrencies - Bitcoin and Beyond
The Economics of Cryptocurrencies - Bitcoin and Beyond
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The world economy is on the verge of crisis again, cryptocurrencies will be strong
Vulnerability refers to the property that things are vulnerable to damage when faced with fluctuations. -Nassim Nicholas Taleb In the face of economic fluctuations, it is disadvantageous to hold such a negative view. Every capital market has its own life cycle, which inevitably goes through a process from growth, to peak, and then to recession. Now is no exception. As we emerge from the longest bull market in history, we suddenly find ourselves in a highly vulnerable global economy facing the panicked and perplexed planet unprepared. However, the turmoil has just begun. Newton's first law, also known as "the law of inertia", means that any object must maintain a constant linear motion or standstill until an external force forces it to change its state of motion. Although this analogy does not perfectly correspond to the capital market (because the market is always changing and developing in different directions), at least one thing is certain that under the action of the market mechanism, the market cycle always appears Trend from peak to valley. The music box winds up, and the performance of the song sounds, and then it stops after a while. When this happens, the market structure collapses, eventually leading to huge chaos, and then falling into silence. Once external forces force the entire economy into trouble, people will realize the long-standing hidden structural defects in the economy. Now, the world economy is on the verge of crisis again. All human beings have to face a sudden outbreak of a global epidemic and the resulting shocks in supply and demand in the market. The economies of some countries have stalled. Ironically, the effects of inertia may be prevalent in market fluctuations. While witnessing the development of the global economy, we still find two simultaneous macro trends: --1-- USD strong We believe that the strong US dollar is driven by three factors: Investors turn to safe assets: Despite the Fed ’s interest rate cuts and monetary stimulus policies, the market ’s increasing demand for the US dollar has pushed up the US dollar index and hit a new high in 18 years. US Dollar Financing Issues: Cross-currency basis swaps measure that investors are more inclined to hold the US dollar than the euro or the yen. On March 17, the euro-dollar basis swap swap premium expanded from -60 basis points to -120 basis points, the highest level since 2011. As of press time, the Euro-US dollar basis swap has rapidly dropped to about -27 basis points, while the US dollar-Japanese yen basis swap has expanded to -70 basis points. Negative basis points indicate greater pressure on the dollar and higher hedging costs for European and Japanese investors. The reality is that U.S. banks, which are the main source of funding for the U.S. dollar, are storing large amounts of cash instead of actively issuing short-term U.S. dollar loans to foreign banks. Due to recent pressure from the balance sheet, more and more U.S. banks are beginning to reduce credit lines to retain cash. In addition, many foreign banks that lack direct access to the US dollar market can only rely on central bank liquidity swaps for financing. This week, the Fed and several other central banks opened new liquidity swap tools, providing USD 30 billion to USD 60 billion of liquidity, respectively, to ease pressure on USD financing. Central banks in emerging market countries are taking urgent steps and lowering their benchmark interest rates: Emerging market investors are very worried about the stability of their currencies and are pouring into the dollar market. According to Bloomberg, all major emerging market currencies weakened against the US dollar on January 20, just as the new crown virus began to spread in Asia. ——2—— Treasury liquidity tightening Abnormally performing credit markets: In general, price fluctuations will prompt investors to switch from risky assets (such as stocks) to safe-haven assets (such as bonds). This was indeed the case when the new coronavirus was causing panic. However, the current despair of liquidity (especially cash) by market investors has led to a large-scale sell-off in the global bond market, falling bond prices and rising interest rates. Repurchase market: The Federal Reserve's rescue measures have not brought the expected results. In the past week, the Federal Reserve announced three repurchases and other measures to release liquidity, hoping to ease the current state of the US Treasury market and reduce the inventory of primary dealers. However, market demand for government bonds remains sluggish. Let's turn our eyes from the home of the macro economy to the cryptocurrency market. Although they are not necessarily related, we find that the two are closely related. In the face of volatility, it is particularly important to develop a price action strategy. The CBOE-VIX index, an indicator that predicts the trend of the S & P 500 in the next 30 days, has surged to its highest level since the last global financial crisis. At the same time, we also saw that the 90-day implied volatility of Bitcoin options rose to 6.8% (annualized 130%), which is about 5.9% (annualized 113%) this weekend. As the "Black Thursday" on March 12th, BTC was down 40% and ETH was down 50%, some leveraged positions were forced to close. According to reports, BitMEX alone closed USD 700 million worth of long and short positions. At the same time, the sell-off of ETH dropped the value of the DeFi ecosystem by 40%. The total amount of collateral liquidation of Compound, dYdX and Maker and other lending platforms reached US $ 10 million. But in this turbulent market, not all assets perform so badly. Although the price of BTC, like the stock market at the beginning, plummeted, falling by 60% from the high price in mid-February, it rebounded by about 50% from the price low on March 12. Over the past period, we have found a large amount of funds flowing from altcoins to BTC. With the spot premium (the spot price is higher than the futures price), the demand for bitcoin lending has increased. The effective fund interest rate also gradually returned to normal as the curve was inverted. In contrast, when futures are at a premium (the futures price is higher than the spot price), there is almost no demand for BTC's lending transactions. At present, the BTC funding rate on various lending platforms has increased from 3-5% to 8%, and the ETH funding rate has increased from 2-4% to 6%. ——3—— Floating profit stablecoin market Since February 14, the entire cryptocurrency market has experienced a large-scale sell-off, with a market value of $ 45 billion evaporated. At the same time, the market value of USDT has risen to nearly $ 5 billion. USDT has emerged from this market volatility and has become a safe-haven asset. This week, the premium rate of USDT prices in China and South Korea is as high as 7%, which is caused by the demand of payment service providers and arbitrage traders. The current over-the-counter USDT supply exceeds supply. At the same time, the market value of USDC climbed to US $ 630 million, a record high. The market value of BUSD is exceeding the US $ 150 million mark, mainly due to the surge in demand for Binance's borrowing and margin trading. ——4—— Near-term outlook We pay close attention to the changing macroeconomic trends and the successive monetary and fiscal policies implemented by governments around the world. Although we cannot predict the specific trend of the market, we still believe that cryptocurrency as an asset class will be strong. In a nutshell, we think: ● Due to the recent sell-off in the market, the value of positions has shrunk sharply, making the distribution of positions in the market clearer. ● With the exit of market makers, the spread between major exchanges has brought more market arbitrage opportunities for retail traders. In particular, the derivatives market (futures and perpetual swaps) has seen a significant discount compared to the spot market, which has pushed up BTC's lending rate. ● By hedging the spot and long futures, market participants can carry out arbitrage trading, which is completely contrary to the market situation we saw last year (the futures price is significantly higher than the spot). ● Over the past six months, trading activities in the options market have grown rapidly. We expect that trading activities in the options market will continue to grow. ● At present, on our platform, institutional clients such as hedge funds, arbitrage traders, crypto companies, etc. have all bought a lot of BTC and USDT. Market volatility is part of investment. We believe that after a period of time, the economy will re-enter the upward trajectory, please let us work together for it.
Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190919(Market index 31 — Fear state)
https://preview.redd.it/ohzr58jf3kn31.png?width=432&format=png&auto=webp&s=7243012b0c5417a9ed5ecab1f85e44d93ddb564f Bank Of America Joins Marco Polo Blockchain Trade Network Bank of America has joined Marco Polo, a consortium working to bring efficiencies to international trade using blockchain technology. Founded by startups R3 and TradeIX, Marco Polo is built on R3’s Corda blockchain platform. The network aims to deliver real-time connectivity, greater visibility for trading relationships and lower barriers to accessing capital. China State Council: Promoting Integration Of New Technologies Like Blockchain Tech With Transportation Industry According to Xinhua News Agency, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council recently issued an outline for transportation construction in China. In terms of smart transportation innovation, the outline proposes to promote the deep integration of new technologies such as big data, Internet, artificial intelligence, and blockchain with the transportation industry. Arab Bank Switzerland Opens Bitcoin Custody, Brokerage Services Arab Bank Switzerland has partnered with blockchain technology firm Taurus to offer Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) custody and brokerage services to its clients. Serge Robin, the CEO of Arab Bank Switzerland — a Swiss institution that forms part of the Jordan-headquartered Arab Bank group — said: “We firmly believe that blockchain will disrupt the financial industry as we know it and we intend to be amongst the. The Turkish Government Has Announced Plans To Establish A National Blockchain Infrastructure According to a Cointelegraph report, the Turkish government has announced plans to establish a national blockchain infrastructure to utilize distributed ledger technology (DLT) in public administration, according to the Strategy 2023 presentation provided by The Ministry of Industry and Technology on Sept. 18 in Ankara. Strategy 2023 emphasizes blockchain and DLT as priorities for the coming year. The document refers to a Startup Genome survey that marks blockchain as one of the fastest-growing tech trends, with a 101.5% increase in early-stage startup funding globally.
Encrypted project calendar（September 19, 2019）
NRG/Energi:Energi (NRG) Energi will launch a trading competition on the KuCoin platform on September 9th. By September 19th, 800 NRG will be presented to the top 470 participants.ADA/Cardano:The Cardano (ADA) project official will host the Wyoming hackathon from September 19th to 22nd.KIN/Kin:The Kin (KIN) project team will host a community gathering in Toronto on September 19.BTC/Bitcoin:The 2019 Open Core Summit will be held in San Francisco from September 19th to 20th.BSV/Bitcoin SV:The Bitcoin SV (BSV) BSV Eco Conference will be held in Hangzhou, China on September 19th. OKEX will jointly host the event as a strategic partner of BSV.NPX/NaPoleonX:NaPoleonX (NPX) Binance DEX will be online NPX at 9:30 am (UTC) on September 19.VIDY:On-line IDAX exchange and opening the GOB/BTC trading market
Encrypted project calendar（September 20, 2019）
NULS / NULS:The NULS 2.0 Beta hackathon will be held from September 20th to September 21st, 2019.AE/Aeternity:Aeternity (AE) will hold “Cosmos One” conference in Prague, Czech Republic on September 20thCOCOS/COCOS:The Cocos-BCX (COCOS) Oasis Arena hackathon will take place from September 20th to 22nd in Shanghai, China (“GO Shanghai”).RVN/Ravencoin:The Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin project team will host the “Ravencoin Asia 2019” party in Seoul, South Korea on September 20.GOB:Go online on the IDAX exchange and open the GOB/BTC trading market
Encrypted project calendar（September 21, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:The 6th FINWISE Global Summit Macau will be held from September 21st to 22nd. Distributed Financial Technology (DeFi) is the main topic of this conference.OKB/OKB:OKB (OKB) OKEx The Africa Cryptour series of talks in Kenya will take place on September 21 in Nairobi.ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) Cardano Ambassador Marin Kramaric will host the Ada community gathering in Croatia on September 21.ZIL/Zilliqa:The Zilliqa (ZIL) Zilliqa project representative will attend the “Bitcoin and Blockchain Future” conference in London, UK on September 21st.
Encrypted project calendar（September 22, 2019）
NPXS/Pundi X:Pundi X (NPXS) PundiX Labs will officially launch the XPOS transaction at the “AkiColle” event in Tokyo on September 22.
Encrypted project calendar（September 23, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:Bakkt, the digital asset platform led by ICE, the parent company of the New York Stock Exchange and the world’s second largest trading group, will launch a bitcoin physical delivery futures contract on September 23.EOS/EOS:EOS main network is expected to upgrade version 1.8 on September 23DCDecred:Project leader Jake Yocom-Piatt of Decred (DCR) Decrex will attend the Encryption Community Party in San Francisco on September 23 and will deliver a speech.
Encrypted project calendar（September 24, 2019）
ENG/Enigma:Enigma (ENG) ENG main network token snapshot will end on September 24, the original start time is August 26.LINA (LINA):Lina Review will host the Lina network launch event in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam on September 24th and release a 10-year operational strategy.Cappasity (CAPP):Cappasity will showcase its digital signage solutions in luxury stores at the Paris Retail Week from September 24th to 26th.
Encrypted project calendar（September 25, 2019）
MIOTA/IOTA:IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on September 25th at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the theme of “Building Your Own IoT.”Quant (QNT):The Quant project will participate in a marketing conference in London from September 25th to 26th, which will focus on data technology.
Encrypted project calendar（September 26, 2019）
ADA/Cardano:The Cardano (ADA) Cardano community will host a party in Washington, DC on September 26.
Encrypted project calendar（September 27, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin:Cripto Latin Fest will be held in Cordoba, Argentina from September 27th to 29th.Switcheo (SWTH):After a one-year token exchange process, the project team will officially end the SWH→SWTH token exchange process on September 27.
Encrypted project calendar（September 28, 2019）
ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) Cardano (ADA) 2nd Anniversary, Cardinal Foundation, IOHK and EMURGO main members will participate in community celebrations in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on September 28.TOP Network (TOP):The TOP Network team will hold a hackathon in Prague, Czech Republic from September 28th to 29th.Horizen (ZEN):Horizen project BD Rep Vano Narimandize will discuss the current status and development of sidechain technology at the Industry 4.0 Blockchain Summit on September 28.
Encrypted project calendar（September 29, 2019）
GAME/GameCredits:GameCredits (GAME) is expected to perform hard forks on September 29th at block height 2519999
Encrypted project calendar（September 30, 2019）
INS/Insolar:Insolar (INS) will be on September 30thERD/Elrond:Elrond (ERD) will conduct main network test on September 30thNULS/NULS:The NULS team will plan to beta the ChainBOX in the third quarter.CS/Credits:Credits (CS) will exchange tokens and bug rewards in the third quarterQTUM/Qtum:Quantum Chain (QTUM) is expected to complete lightning network beta in the third quarterXEM/NEM:New World Bank (XEM) will release mobile wallet and computer wallet in the third quarterHC/HyperCash: hypercash (HC) will complete community management agreement in the third quarter
Encrypted project calendar（October 01, 2019）
HT/Huobi Token:The financial base public link jointly created by Firecoin and Nervos is expected to be open source in October.RVN/Ravencoin:Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin will perform a hard fork on October 1.ADA/Cardano:Cardano (ADA) plans to hold technical consensus meeting in Amsterdam on October 1stXRC/Bitcoin Rhodium:Bitcoin Rhodium (XRC) will record account balance awards on October 1stPPC/Peercoin:Peercoin (PPC) will perform Peercoin v0.8 (code tang lang) hard fork on October 1st
Encrypted project calendar（October 02, 2019）
BNB/Binance Coin:The 2019 DELTA Summit will be held in Malta from October 2nd to 4th. The DELTA Summit is Malta’s official blockchain and digital innovation campaign.CAPP/Cappasity:The Cappasity (CAPP) London Science and Technology Festival will be held from October 2nd to 3rd, when the Cappasity project will be attended by the Science and Technology Festival.
Encrypted project calendar（October 03, 2019）
ETC/Ethereum Classic:The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4
“When coin burn?” Every day, and 400 000 SC so far
A light (but educative) reading for the weekend: Among the usual tribulations of traders like the occurrence of the moon and the release date of certain Italian luxury car manufacturer, “when Binance” and “when coin burn” are usual questions. The first one is not a thing anymore, so today I am decided to answer the second one :-) Actually, coin burning has existed on Sia since the origin of the blockchain. Probably many users are not aware of this, but every time a host does not fulfill his obligations in a contract (presenting a valid storage proof), the part of his collateral backing the renter’s files, together with the profit that would be paid from the renter, is burnt. For those unfamiliar, burning consists on sending coins to an address which is extremely unlikely it will be able to be used, as it does not form part of any known wallet. Specifically, funds are being sent to the address 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000089eb0d6a8a69, this is, the address number 0 followed by its checksum of 12 characters. And how much has been burnt to the present day? The blockchain explorer that I released a couple of months ago, Navigator, among other things allows me to retrieve bulk data from the blockchain, so I am presenting all the collateral being burnt over time in https://siastats.info/macroeconomics (third chart). Overall, 393 000 SC. Little, compared with the current Supply, but it is good to keep track of it. Do not confuse this source of coin burning with the Proof of Burn mechanics that will be introduced in a future update. Once deployed, hosts will have to burn a specific amount of coins to create a “reputation”, and so preventing Sybil attacks (where the attacker deploys multiple fake hosts to outcompete legit ones) by making them economically unfeasible. Oh, and before any user starts developing thoughts like “we need a serious burn” or “devs should burn coins”, just remember that unlike most of the coins out there, Siacoins are not issued by the developers, and instead the whole supply is rewarded to miners (pure and fair PoW, like in Bitcoin). This means all the Supply of coins is in the hands of the community. Of course, if you want to contribute to the cause of burning, feel free to send coins to the address mentioned above :-D
General info and list of exchanges for Arepacoin (AREPA)
RESUMEN La Arepa Coin (AREPA), tiene su origen para el año 2016 por un grupo de desarrolladores con la idea de comercializar en el campo de las criptodivisas, pero luego para finales de ese mismo año es abandonada, ya que, la información sobre los avances de la misma dejaron de ser continuos, hasta que, para el año en curso (2018), es retomada por otro grupo de desarrolladores, quienes modifican el código fuente original y es relanzada con un nuevo nombre AREPA COIN VE. La cadena de bloques permite verificar y transferir de manera exacta toda la información, prescindiendo de terceros, brindando las herramientas necesarias para una operación exitosa, el reto o el objetivo principal es tener los instrumentos financieros transparentes, eficientes e inclusivos. La población en general, sin importar donde se encuentre, tendrá a su alcance una tecnología que le permitirá mantener el contacto directo con el país, saltando las barreras principales producto de las restricciones derivadas del bloqueo financiero, y disfrutará las ventajas de contar con diversos medio de pago robusto para estimular el ahorro, la comercialización, la producción y contribuir con desarrollo del país, para lograr una estabilización económica. INTRODUCCION La tecnología de cadena de bloques (blockchain), en el mercado global de criptodivisas, no es simplemente una tendencia, sino un futuro en el cual el manejo de las finanzas personales, empresariales, institucionales y potencialmente entre países se volverá más fácil, directo, rápido y transparente. La aplicación de esta tecnología, las criptomonedas, destacan su popularidad. Dichos instrumentos resultan convenientes para una sociedad global debido a que permiten mayor eficiencia, rapidez y libertad en todo tipo de transacciones, especialmente en el comercio internacional. Su uso ha generado un universo de oportunidades que tienen el potencial de alterar las prácticas de negocio convencionales, sobre todo en industrias basadas en la intermediación para el intercambio o la verificación, como las finanzas, el comercio, la manufactura e incluso en áreas del conocimiento humano que acostumbran adoptar las innovaciones tecnológicas en medianos y largos plazos, como lo son el derecho y la política. Aún falta masa crítica de adopción de las criptomonedas entre inversionistas, emprendedores, consumidores, instituciones, empresas e inclusive gobiernos, como alternativa de transferencia de valor e información: a principios de 2017 la cantidad de usuarios activos de criptomonedas en el todo el mundo se estimaba en alrededor de tres millones. Sin embargo, el crecimiento explosivo de la oferta y la demanda, del capital de mercado y las ofertas iniciales (ICOs), son claros indicadores de un crecimiento importante en la base de usuarios durante el año pasado. El desarrollo de criptoactivos está basado en la idea primordial de la sustitución del papel moneda por un sistema tecnológico de confianza. Este modelo de trabajo se fundamenta en el ingenioso mecanismo que combina redes, poder computacional e incentivos al trabajo colaborativo para garantizar la integridad de la información, trazabilidad y transparencia en los intercambios. Adicionalmente, ya que coloca directamente en las manos de las personas el manejo de sus recursos financieros, plantea un enfoque diferente de la seguridad en finanzas electrónicas. Sin embargo, a pesar de las ventajas inherentes de la tecnología blockchain o cadena de bloques, hasta ahora solo existen una cantidad sustancial de proyectos y de criptomonedas con un buen asentamiento en base a la confianza y la estabilidad, y Arepa Coin VE es una de ellas, la misma seria hasta ahora una de las cuatro criptomonedas existente en el país. 1 https://hbr.org/2017/03/the-blockchain-will-do-to-banks-and-law-firms-what-the-internet-did-to-media 2 https://capitalmarketsblog.accenture.com/blockchain-technology-a-fad-or-here-to-stay 3 https://coinmarketcap.com/ 4 https://www.forbes.com/sites/chancebarnett/2017/09/23/inside-the-meteoric-rise-of-icos/#1d6cb3b05670 1. ANTECEDENTES Para comenzar, debido a la situación y condición que se encuentra el país, muchos desarrolladores y usuarios finales se abocaron por la inmersión del sistema de criptodivisas, es decir, encontrar un canal por donde obtener ingresos y traspasos de valores, los cuales ayuden a encontrar una estabilización económica que tan anhela el país. Seguidamente, la necesidad de tener un canal que no dependa del sistema monetario tradicional o banca tradicional, ayudaran en diversos aspecto tanto a la sociedad Venezolana como Internacional. La combinación de estos antecedentes históricos y el reconocimiento internacional del enorme potencial de las nuevas tecnologías, sustentan la idea de la Arepa Coin VE como criptomoneda nacional e internacional desarrollada y promovida por un grupo de desarrolladores y comunidad en constante crecimiento para el desarrollo de una economía global descentralizada, más justa, inclusiva y transparente. 1 Barrdear, J. y Kumhof, M. (2016). Macroeconomics of central bank issued digital currencies. Bank of England Staff Working Paper No. 605 July 2 https://www.bis.org/review/r090402c.pdf 2. FUNDAMENTOS TECNOLOGICOS Para comenzar, debido a la situación y condición que se encuentra el país, muchos desarrolladores y usuarios finales se abocaron por la inmersión del sistema de criptodivisas, es decir, encontrar un canal por donde obtener ingresos y traspasos de valores, los cuales ayuden a encontrar una estabilización económica que tan anhela el país. 2.1. CADENAS DE BLOQUES (BLOCKCHAIN) Una cadena articulada o de bloques es un libro contable público que puede registrar transacciones entre dos partes de manera eficiente, verificable y permanente. Ello permite la sustitución tecnológica de la confianza a través del trabajo colaborativo de una red electrónica cuyos nodos responden a intereses diversos, que se alinean para garantizar la eficiencia del sistema por medio de reglas claras e incentivos otorgados por la misma red. La cadena de bloques organiza la información en forma de bloques, que son verificados por los nodos de la red para poderlos conectar al bloque que lo precede a través de un código hash. La conformación única de los códigos que vinculan a los bloques depende de mecanismos de encriptación que son, a su vez, definidos por una representación codificada y compactada de la serie de entradas que contengan. Una vez creado un bloque y verificado por un número determinado de nodos (o todos), según protocolos y reglas definidas desde el primer bloque de la cadena (“bloque génesis”), la modificación es distribuida a todos los nodos de la red. Todos los nodos tienen la totalidad del registro y la posibilidad (a veces, la obligación) de auditarlo en forma permanente y en tiempo real. La característica fundamental de una cadena de bloques es la “distribución”, es decir, la desconcentración de los trabajos y el acceso a la información. Todos los miembros tienen un rol importante (en la mayoría de las cadenas de bloques todos los nodos tienen exactamente el mismo rol), pero ninguno concentra información, ni tiene el poder de tomar algún tipo de decisión sobre la cadena, por lo que se requiere de un consenso global basado en reglas claras y estrictas cuando se desea realizar algún cambio. Los registros de una cadena de bloques son, por tanto, altamente confiables gracias a que garantizan la integridad de la información, trazabilidad de las transacciones y seguridad. El uso de las cadenas de bloques comienza a ganar popularidad globalmente. En la actualidad tiene centenares de aplicaciones. Esta tecnología de „registros electrónicos distribuidos‟ puede aprovecharse para administrar todo tipo de información: historias médicas, autoría y patentes, autentificación de datos, distribución de alimentos, bienes raíces y más, ofreciendo incluso la posibilidad de programar “contratos inteligentes” (Smart contracts) de ejecución automática, que prometen revolucionar muchas actividades e industrias alrededor del mundo. Entre las aplicaciones destaca el registro de transferencia de valor, pues las cadenas de bloques hacen posible -por primera vez en la historia- las transferencias electrónicas reales, es decir aquellas donde una parte cede a otra un elemento de información y pierde de forma definitiva su tenencia (la capacidad de usarlo o copiarlo). En pocas palabras, las cadenas de bloques eliminan la posibilidad del “doble uso” en la transferencia de información, que en operaciones financieras se traduce en “doble gasto”. 2.2. CRIPTOMONEDAS No es de extrañar que las cadenas de bloques hayan sido ideadas precisamente pensando en la preservación del valor y la libertad de manera descentralizada para realizar transferencias de éste. Bitcoin, la primera criptomoneda digital basada en la confianza y distribuida -sin la intervención de un ente central- fue su primera aplicación. Las criptomonedas son activos digitales diseñados para trabajar como medios de intercambio que usan criptografía para darle seguridad a sus transacciones, para controlar la creación de nuevas unidades y para verificar la transferencia de éstos. Las criptomonedas: a. Facilitan las transacciones monetarias y legales (Peer to Peer). b. Permiten la transferencia de activos (o certificaciones de su propiedad) de manera más segura. c. Facultan a los usuarios y las organizaciones sobre el manejo de sus finanzas, para que ellos mismos se conviertan en los dueños de los bancos, y no solo de la cuenta bancaria, al poseer un “monedero digital” o wallet para guardar sus criptomonedas. d. Evitan el alto costo transaccional de las compañías de tarjetas de crédito y procesadores de pago centralizados tradicionales. e. Ahorran tiempo gracias a la rapidez de las transacciones. f. Eliminan las barreras geográficas al ser impulsados y sustentados en protocolos de internet, dando acceso a operaciones financieras internacionales seguras. 3. LA OPORTUNIDAD Los momentos por los cuales el país venezolano está atravesando actualmente reaccionan como elementos catalizadores para la creación de criptomonedas que son respuestas tecnológicas a un solución que esta lo más cercana posible para combatir dicha problemática de impedimentos de compra y venta nacional e internacional. 4. AREPA COIN VE 4.1. DESCRIPCIÓN Arepa coin ve (AREPA) será un criptoactivo de fácil utilización de punto a punto, teniendo la capacidad de ser usado como elemento de mercado, compra, venta, ahorro, bienes, servicios, tradeo e intercambio con otras criptomonedas. Su utilización será el motor de promoción de una economía digital independiente, transparente y abierta a la participación directa de los ciudadanos del país y del mundo, que servirá de plataforma para el desarrollo de los criptoactivos y la innovación en Venezuela y otros países emergentes. Este instrumento impulsará el surgimiento de un sistema financiero global más justo, colaborativo, autónomo y favorable al crecimiento y el intercambio entre economías desarrolladas y en desarrollo: AREPA COIN VE POSEE ELEMENTOS PRIMORDIALES COMO: a) Medio de intercambio. Podrá ser usado para adquirir bienes o servicios y será canjeable por dinero fiduciario y otros criptoactivos o criptomonedas a través de casas de intercambio digitales. b) Plataforma digital. Podría ejercer las funciones de una representación digital de mercancías y/o materias primas (e-commodity) y servirá como andamio para crear otros instrumentos digitales orientados al comercio y las finanzas nacionales e internacionales. c) Instrumento de ahorro e inversión. Su valor estable alentará su uso como reserva de valor e inversión financiera. Divisibilidad AREPA será divisible en 100.000.000 de unidades. La unidad mínima de intercambio será denominada Relleno (0,00000001). 5. COMPRA, VENTA E INTERCAMBO La AREPA se podrá adquirir siguiente forma: a. Exchange o casas de intercambio. b. Vendedores oficiales autorizados por el grupo de desarrolladores en base a la confianza, su estabilizad y compromiso directo con la moneda. c. Utilización de otros medios de pagos con otro tipo de divisa de valor. d. Comunidad activa realizando transacciones directas con la moneda misma. La compra y venta de AREPA puede ser realizada de persona a persona, de portafolio a portafolio, en una manera segura. Está fuera del alcance de un bloqueo o limitación arbitraria por parte de terceros a menos que esté en manos de una entidad centralizada, tal como una casa de intercambio. Esta capacidad de la cadena de bloques AREPA para ejecutar operaciones directas de intercambio permitirá que el instrumento sea utilizado como medio de pago directo en negocios, restaurantes y empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. De todos modos, debe notarse que las casas de intercambio digital desempeñarán un rol fundamental en el monitoreo y prevención de actividades ilícitas y en el combate al lavado de dinero, por lo que constituyen el medio ideal para canalizar las actividades comerciales, industriales y de negocios de comercio internacional en las que AREPA interactúa con dinero fiduciario y con otros criptoactivos o criptomonedas. EXCHANGE LIST Binance Huobi Kucoin Bibox Qryptos Satoexchange BIGone Bitrue Bilaxy Bit-Z Linkcoin SECURE WALLET Ledgerwallet Trezor
General info and list of exchanges for NUSD (NUSD)
A decentralised payment network and stablecoin v0.8 Samuel Brooks, Anton Jurisevic, Michael Spain, Kain Warwick Abstract There is currently no decentralised currency useful for everyday economic purposes. We propose a peer-to-peer payment network and price-stable token that does not rely on a central authority to maintain trust. Prior to Bitcoin, attempts to create digital currencies were centralised, making them vulnerable to censorship and seizure. Bitcoin’s consensus mechanism protected it from interference, but its fixed monetary policy induced extreme price volatility. Havven solves this by issuing tokens against a distributed collateral pool, which derives its value from fees levied on transactions. Growth in transaction volume thus increases the value of the collateral, allowing the token supply to expand to meet demand. The resulting system retains the best features of Bitcoin, while the introduction of price stability results in a superior form of money. 1.1 Payment Networks Payment networks are closed systems within which users can transfer value. Such systems include credit card networks, the SWIFT network, and PayPal. Proprietors of these networks possess absolute control over the value within the network, so any transaction conducted within them may be blocked or reversed at any time. Although this is ostensibly designed to protect users, it introduces systemic risk for all participants. If the network is compromised or its owners cease to behave benevolently, no party can trust that the value in their account is secure or accessible. In a traditional payment network like American Express, participants trust that the fees charged are sufficient to service the expenses incurred. However, were this trust to disappear, merchants would refuse to participate. Thus, the value of the unit of account within this network is derived solely from a single entity and the trust that participants have in that entity. As a result, the viability of any centralised payment network depends on complete trust in a central authority. Bitcoin solved these problems by ensuring that users have sole discretion over the money in their account by producing a trustless, permissionless payment network in which anyone could participate at will. Since users could enter and exit the system at any time without being exposed to the aforementioned risks, adoption was accelerated, and network effects were amplified. Programmable blockchains allow the logic of a payment network to be decentralised in a transparent way, enabling anyone to verify whether the network is solvent. This eliminates systemic risk and reduces the costs associated with centralised networks. 1.2 Cryptocurrency The technology of money has three key functions: to act as a unit of account, a medium of exchange and a store of value. As payment technology has advanced in recent years, money has become increasingly invisible and it is often lost upon its users that, like any technology, it can be improved. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies represent an impressive technological advancement on existing forms of money because they deliver improved durability, portability, and divisibility. Further, they do so without requiring centralised control or sovereign enforcement from which to derive their value. Their fixed monetary policies have protected them from debasement and devaluation, allowing them to outperform other forms of money as a store of value. However, this has created the potential for short-run volatility as they lack mechanisms to dynamically adjust supply to changing demand. Bitcoin has thus tended to be a poor medium of exchange and an even worse unit of account. In order for a token to effectively act as money its purchasing power must remain stable against goods and services over the short to medium term. 1 1.3 Stablecoins Cryptocurrencies exhibit transaction immutability and censorship resistance, and in these ways are a better form of money; but their adoption has been hindered by the volatility inherent in their static monetary policies. Users cannot engage with such systems as a medium of exchange if the purchasing power fluctuates. Stability continues to be one of the most valuable yet elusive characteristics for the technology. Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies designed for price stability. They should ideally be as effective at making payments as fiat currencies like the US Dollar, while retaining their other desirable properties. A decentralised payment network built on a stablecoin would be able to capture all the benefits of a permissionless system, while also eliminating volatility. One approach to achieving price stability is to produce a token whose price targets the value of a fiat currency. Targeting stability against fiat currencies obviates the need to respond to macroeconomic conditions, as the token then benefits from the stabilisation efforts of large institutions acting in fiat markets. Furthermore, if a token’s price can be maintained at $1, then it can serve as an interface between fiat money and cryptocurrency. If such a stablecoin does not require an account in a traditional bank, then it can be effectively used for settlement and purchasing, without the centralisation and counterparty risk involved in fiat transactions. Thus it can be expected that by using stablecoins, exchanges that trade fiat for crypto will be able to rapidly reduce their transactional costs, reducing the barriers for new users to enter the market. 1.4 Distributed Collateral Today’s fiat money is not backed by an asset; its stability is derived from the authority of the governments which issue it. These governments require that tax obligations are denominated in the currencies they control, which are then used to fund active stabilisation efforts. However, with government control comes the risk of tyranny and debasement. Decentralised monetary systems don’t have these powers, and so they must use collateral to provide confidence in the value of their tokens. A decentralised system cannot use collateral assets that exist outside the blockchain, as interfacing with these assets necessitates centralisation with the aforementioned failure modes. Meanwhile, cryptoasset prices have been dominated by speculative volatility. So whether a system uses real-world assets or cryptoassets to back a stable token, if the value of the collateral is uncorrelated with the demand for the token, then the system is vulnerable to external price shocks. Large corrections can destroy the value of collateral without any change in the demand for the token issued against it. Clearly then, in designing an asset-backed stablecoin it is important to select the collateral asset carefully, but no existing asset perfectly serves the purpose. 2 1.5 Havven Havven is a decentralised payment network where users transact directly in a price-stable cryptocurrency. Those who use the stablecoin pay fees to those who collateralise the network, compensating them for the risks of providing collateral and stability. Collateral providers control the money supply, and fees are distributed in proportion with each individual’s stabilisation performance. Thus, Havven rewards suppliers of stability and charges those who demand it. Havven implements two linked tokens to achieve this structure: Nomin The stablecoin, whose supply floats. Its price as measured in fiat currency should be stable. This token is useful insofar as it provides a superior medium of exchange. Thus in addition to price stability, Havven should encourage adequate nomin liquidity. Havven This token provides the collateral for the system and has a static supply. Its market capitalisation reflects the system’s aggregate value. Ownership of havvens grants the right to issue a value of nomins proportional to the dollar value of havvens placed into escrow. If a user wishes to release their escrowed havvens, they must first present the system with the quantity of nomins previously issued1 . The havven token is a novel decentralised asset, whose intrinsic value is derived from the fees generated in the network it collateralises. This enables a form of representative money in which there is no requirement for a physical asset, thus removing the problems of trust and custodianship. Issuance of nomins requires a greater value of havvens to be escrowed in the system, providing confidence that nomins can be redeemed for their face value even if the price of havvens falls. The system incentivises the issuance and destruction of nomins in response to changes in demand, but ultimately the intrinsic value of the havvens will reflect the required nomin supply. Backing a stablecoin in this way provides full transparency over how many tokens have been issued against the available collateral. This provides a solid basis for confidence in the solvency of the payment network built upon it. Denominating the value of the nomin in an external fiat currency means that stability is relative only to that currency. Initially this currency will be the US dollar, and this is the target currency used throughout this paper, but in the future the system will support additional flavours of stablecoin that are denominated in other currencies. 1Following Bitcoin, the Havven system will appear in uppercase and singular; while the havven token will be lowercase and may be plural. EXCHANGE LIST Kucoin Binance Bit-Z Bibox Linkcoin Qryptos Bitrue Bilaxy SECURE WALLET https://www.ledgerwallet.com/3b59
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Cardano(ADA) Banned from Wiki? Bitcoin to $350k? Binance to issue Debit Card
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